Studies on the health effects of the general population exposed to emissions from both natural geothermal events and plants using geothermal energy at domestic or commercial level have been considered between 1999 and 2019. The results indicate that the health of populations residing in areas rich in geothermal emissions (water vapor mixed with carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methane and, to a lesser extent, rare gases and trace elements in volatile forms) presents some critical elements to be explored.

Source: Bustaffa, E., Cori, L., Manzella, A., Nuvolone, D., Minichilli, F., Bianchi, F., & Gorini, F. (2020). The health of communities living in proximity of geothermal plants generating heat and electricity: A review. The Science of the total environment, 706, 135998.